G. Marconi, an Italian inventor, unlocks the path of recent day wireless communications by communicating the letter ‘S’ along a distance of 3 Km in the form of three dot Morse code with the help of electromagnetic waves. After this inception, wireless communications have become an important part of present day society. Since satellite communication, television and radio transmission has advanced to pervasive mobile telephone, wireless communications has transformed the style in which society runs. The evolution of wireless begins here and is shown in Fig. 1. It shows the evolving generations of wireless technologies in terms of data rate, mobility, coverage and spectral efficiency. As the wireless technologies are growing, the data rate, mobility, coverage and spectral efficiency increases. It also shows that the 1G and 2G technologies use circuit switching while 2.5G and 3G uses both circuit and packet switching and the next generations from 3.5G to now i.e. 5G are using packet switching. Along with these factors, it also differentiate between licensed spectrum and unlicensed spectrum. All the evolving generations use the licensed spectrum while the WiFi, Bluetooth and WiMAX are using the unlicensed spectrum. An overview about the evolving wireless technologies is below:

From Generation 1G to 2G and from 3G to 4G, this world of telecommunication has seen a number of improvements along with improved performance with every single passing day. This fast revolution in mobile computing changes our day to day life that is way we work, use, interact, learn, implement etc. Until now we have achieved 4G technology and yes the smartphones manufactured now a days are a featured example of this generation. The underdeveloped countries such as Nepal itself had not been able to use of this generation unlike other countries where the research and innovation towards the next generation has already been on its way. All we can say is that 4G is a significant achievement for the further development of the 5G technology.

Now, let’s dig up what 5G is all about. The 5G aims to achieve the vision of essentially unlimited access to information and sharing of data anywhere and anytime for anyone and anything by providing affordable broadband wireless connectivity at very high speed (higher than 1 Gbps, 4G offers the wireless internet connectivity of about 1Gbps). The in use EDGE technology in 3G devices and now, Wi-fi using LTE in 4G will ultimately be developed into WWWW( World Wide Wireless Web ) to provide global sharing in a large scale through a common connected network from different devices also called ubiquitous (global) computing which means the user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies (2G, 3G, 4G or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, PAN ) and seamlessly move between them and result in multiple concurrent data transfer. It’s not just about super-fast internet connection and capacity, it’s about not compromising the needs of thousands of people. Suppose if you are in a Stadium along with other 30,000 people who are accessing mobile data to upload a photo in a social media then by 4G it’s a great deal but 5G uses innovative technology that can allocate each users with their own antennas. So, that makes 5G almost 10 times faster than 4G.

Additionally, it focuses on (Voice over IP) VOIP enabled devices that user will experience a high level of call volume and data transmission. It will give you the concept of intelligent Internet phone where the mobile can prefer the finest connections. It will support IPv6 where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and the connected network. 5G will also provide wireless connectivity for a wide range of new applications and use cases, including wearable devices, smart homes, traffic safety/control, and critical infrastructure and industry applications, as well as for very-high-speed media delivery, documentation, supporting electronic transactions (e-Payments, e-transactions), and multimedia newspapers, also to watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an HD T.V. It is expected that the initial Internet philosophy of keeping the network as simple as possible, and giving more functionalities to the end nodes also using 5G with cloud computing and nanotechnology in real wireless world with no more limitation to access and zone issues.

Evolution beyond mobile internet from analog through to LTE (Long Term Evolution), each generation of mobile technology has been motivated by the need to meet a requirement identified between that technology and its predecessor, the next generation must be about the advancements in all existing mobile technology so smart that it can ultimately result in artificial intelligence. By 2020, 3D movies and games, real-time streaming of ultra HD 2K content and remote medical service will be common on a smartphone resulting in need of 5G networks.

A Survey of 5G Network Architecture and Emerging Technologies