TORRENT: Leech, Seed, Peer, Everything To Know About


In simple words, You are a Leecher/Peer until your download completes. You become a Seeder once you have 100% download.

Mostly, all of us are well known what torrent is and where we use it? But, What exactly is torrent? How does BitTorrent work?Why torrent? Is torrent legal? How are large files hosted on the Internet easily?

An American Computer programmer Bram Cohen came up with the concept of sharing a file over the Internet with different hosts. BitTorrent was first released by Bram Cohen back in 2001, but it took two years before the new file-sharing protocol gained a notable audience. In the years that followed millions of torrent files were downloaded and shared billions of times. Bram Cohen designed a peer to peer communication protocol for distributing data over the internet termed as BitTorrent protocol. Peer-to-peer file sharing is different from traditional file downloading. In peer-to-peer sharing, you use a software program (rather than your Web browser) to locate computers that have the file you want.Because these are ordinary computers like yours, as opposed to servers, they are called peers.The BitTorrent protocol divides a large files into small chunks allowing users to download sections of it and to exchange the sections between themselves until the file download completes. This protocol uses less bandwidth from the file's creator. This is a great advantage for its distribution in the long term.

How does BitTorrent work?

Unlike some other peer-to-peer downloading methods, BitTorrent is a protocol that offloads some of the file tracking work to a central server (called a tracker). Another difference is that it uses a principal called tit-for-tat. This means that in order to receive files, you have to give them. With BitTorrent, the more files you share with others, the faster your downloads are. Finally, to make better use of available Internet bandwidth (the pipeline for data transmission), BitTorrent downloads different pieces of the file you want simultaneously from multiple computers.
Its a fairly simple concept, When you download a torrent, you aren't downloading the file from one specific person, but rather from many different sources who share the file, for example; lets say I am downloading a movie from a torrent thats around 300 megabytes, at 200 kb/s speed from 10 different sources, that would mean that the average transfer rate per person is 20 kb/s, so from each person you are downloading the same file (but different pieces of it) at an average 20kb/s.

The thing is that some people have slow Internet, so you made download faster from others, lets say you have 10 different sources but 5 of them are on dial up, and you only receive a max of 5 kb/s, that means the other 175 kb/s would come from the other 5 Internet users who may be using broadband or higher.

Its the same concept for seeding, once you download the file, and you allow to seed it, a lot of people are connect to your computer since you are hosting the file, not just one person, lets say you are seeding a file for 30 people, but your upload speed is at 150kb/s each of them are receiving an average of 5 kb/s upload speed for each person.

Your friends Internet connection impacts the speed of the download, and also He may be getting unlucky and downloading from sources that have slow Internet speeds, (it happens)

Is torrent legal?

As long as the item is copyrighted and you don’t own it and if someone else is the owner then downloading it for free is not legal. But via torrent it is legal. The protocol itself is perfectly legal. Torrent may be primarily used for privacy at the present mainly because of its decentralized nature. However there are many legal uses of BitTorrent, like many Linux distros prefer torrent to push out updates as it reduces the stress on their servers. 


What is seeding?

Seeding is where you leave your BitTorrent client open after you've finished your download to help distribute it (you distribute the file while downloading, but it's even more helpful if you continue to distribute the full file even after you have finished downloading). Chances are that most of the data you got was from seeds, so help give back to the community! It doesn't require much - the client will continue seeding until the torrent is removed (right click the torrent, then hit Remove). Proper practice is to seed until the ratio of upload:download is at least 1.00.

What are seeds, peers and leeches in Torrents' language?

SEEDERS are those who has downloaded the file already or initially only one person who uploads the torrent seeds to others. You may notice that after your download is complete the torrent turns from DOWNLOADING to SEEDING. Seeder is someone from whom you can download a piece of file. Hence they affect the overall availability of file on P2P (Point to Point) network.

PEERS are those who are downloading and uploading at the same time. They do not posses the whole file. They only posses parts of whole. Peer is someone who is involved in file sharing activity. It is a generic term.

LEECHERS are those who don’t have all parts file and are not able to share you the required part of the file. If there are zero seeders it is doubtful that you will ever finish downloading that torrent. Very rarely you can download the whole only by leechers. Leecher is someone who has downloaded a file but is not sharing it back to P2P (Point to Point) network. Hence, overall availablity of file decreases.

In simple words, You are a Leecher/Peer until your download completes. You become a Seeder once you have 100% download.

What is their inside Bit-torrent file?

The address to one or more trackers and information about the files. The tracker is a server that knows which users have the real file.
The basic principle is:
  • Your BitTorrent program, that opens the BitTorrent file, connects to the tracker(s) and gets a list of people who have the file. 
  • Your BitTorrent program connects to the people and request pieces of the file. 
  • You are now also on the list, so any user opening the BitTorrent File after you will get your address as well and can download the pieces from you that you already have downloaded. 

How the first seeding starts in torrent? 

  • You create a torrent using any torrent client 
  • add trackers (to manage a list of all the swarms and peers) 
  • distribute the .torrent file 
  • users (torrent clients) read the .torrent file and then obtain a list of peers and seeders from the trackers by querying the unique hash of that torrent 
  • Before the connections are made to those peers, various information like: total pieces, piece size, names, hierarchy of files etc are saved from the .torrent file 
  • connection setup and downloading starts 

What is the first seeded torrent file?

The Oldest Torrent

The torrent file that has been around for the longest time according to our knowledge is The Matrix ASCII. We already crowned this one the oldest torrent back in 2005, and as of today(Nov 7, 2010) it is still active with a few downloaders and only one seeder.
The torrent file in question was created in December 2003 when sites like isoHunt, The Pirate Bay and Torrentz.com were only a few months old and when Facebook and YouTube didn’t yet exist. Thus far, this torrent has survived a mind boggling 2500 days.

What is the largest torrent file?

When we refer to the largest torrent we mean the single .torrent file that downloads the most data, not the size of the .torrent file itself. There are several huge torrent files active at the moment, but the record goes to a torrent with a 746.70 GB collection of all 2010 World Cup soccer matches (~ 6GB per half).

Refrences:


How to Mute a User on Twitter

How to Mute a User on Twitter


So you have been following someone on Twitter for a while now. But you don’t want to see their tweets anymore. Blocking them is too aggressive, you don’t really want to unfollow them.
A good way to stop seeing them on your timeline without them finding about it is to mute them. Here’s how you can do that.

MUTING A USER ON WEB

  • Click on … icon at the bottom of a tweet by the user you want to mute
  • Click  Mute
Alternatively, you can go to the profile page of the user you want to mute, click the gear icon and select Mute.
When you’ve muted a user you will see a confirmation banner. If you want to unmute them you can click on Undo and do so instantly.

MUTING A USER ON ANDROID

  • Tap a tweet by the user you want to mute
  • Tap the overflow button (three vertical dots) at the top-right corner
  • Select Mute
Or you can go to the profile of the user you want to mute, tap the overflow button and select Mute

MUTING A USER ON IOS

  • Tap a tweet by the user you want to mute
  • Tap ••• icon
  • Tap Mute and confirm
To mute them from their profile, tap on the gear icon > Mute and confirm.
Once you’ve muted a user, their Tweets and Retweets will not show on your timeline anymore. Muting will not cause you to unfollow them. They will not know that you have muted them. The muted user can still send you Direct Messages and mentions by them will show on your Notifications tab. You will not receive push or SMS notifications from muted account.
How to Remotely Disable Active Gmail Sessions

How to Remotely Disable Active Gmail Sessions


Security Advice: Never trust the guy 
next to your side, he may be peeking your passwords. Prior to that never use your friends gadgets to check your vital information. Go INCOGNITO even in your own device becaus somebody is always watching you!!!


Tips today we are writing about is not a new one, but when it comes to the security aspects of cyber world, nothing is old or less important. Whenever we use somebody’s laptop, tablets or smart phones our advice to you is go incognito, always use private browsing.
 
 REMOTELY DISABLING ACTIVE SESSIONS OF GMAIL
  • Login to your gmail account
  • Scroll down to the bottom, in the bottom right corner, you will see details, Click it.
  • Now a new screen appears , there you can see the details of the active sessions.
  • Your current session is marked with an * sign.
  • Then to disable other active sessions(if any) there appears a bottom to signout remotely.
That's it! Just few clicks and you are free from vulnerability.

ECOSIA Plant Trees while you search the web


Ecosia is the search engine that plants trees with its ad revenue. Share Ecosia and show your friends how they can do good just by searching the web. Ecosia is a web search engine based in Berlin, Germany, which donates 80% of its surplus income to nonprofit conservationist organizations, with a current focus on tree planting. As a "social business", Ecosia is a CO2-neutral company that supports full financial transparency, and is certified by B-labs as a B-corporation.[Source: Ecosia].

Ecosia's search engine is powered by Bing and Ecosia's own search algorithms. It's mission is to "create a world where the environment no longer needs protecting". To know more about this seach engine follow the link About ECOSIA.

 
 

We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us.

My understanding about Anonymous was a term quoted for group of  dirty hackers punks who do Black Hat Hacking, steal digital property of an individual, group and organizations and using it for vulnerable causes and make people suffer
. I thought it was always nasty job that they doing and the people. 

Then I watched this video "Anonymous Message to Donald Trupm" and found the message very bold, truthful, supportive on behalf of citizens. It was A  direct message to the President Elect of The United States. The message was like this in their description:

So what are you going to really do for the American people DONALD TRUMP? Because right now, you should see yourself as the apprentice and learn from the mistakes of those before you. Will you protect the American people, protect their food, protect their security, their health, education, their human rights, their privacy, or are you just going to be like many others who could have made a great name for themselves. Remember, your actions will show the people who you truly are deep down, and Anonymous will be only to eager to keep on the watch and expose anything we feel the people should be aware of.

But after watching this video, somehow I thought " Oh no! I was wrong, this group is warning the POTUS to take responsibility of citizen and help them with food, shelter and job". 
Then I started checking all the videos uploaded by Anonymous Official.There were many videos which strictly warned the politicians, businessmen and hypocrites not to seize our freedom of speaking, freedom of press and all human rights. Anonymous not only have supported or say have spoken on behalf of some internet anonymous cyber monks but for the whole world.
Wow this was fascinating. They called Anonymous was not a organized group but Anonymous is a culture. And their tagline is so bold that anybody on a first glimpse will support, like an dare also afraid of: 
We are Anonymous,
We are Legion,
We do not forgive,
We do not forget,
Expect us.

Definitely now I already like this Culture of Speakers of Freedom. I spent a very long time reading internet articles on who they are, how they are Anonymous etc on Wikipedia,  Reddit, answers on Quora etc and find out that Anonymous is a very very interesting path, culture, voice or an attitude (whatever you wanna use) that every citizens should adapt. So wanted to know what it was and if I also could be a part of it. This is what I find out:

Anonymous [1]

It's is a loosely associated international network of activist and hacktivist entities with a very loose and decentralized command structure that operates on the ideas rather than the directives.Anonymous are everywhere over the world. They are students, clerks, business man or unemployed, neighbors, your hair dressers, and your network administrators. Anonymous are smart people with smart clothes. Anons have no gender, no religion, nth to discriminate, or anything to preach. Anonymous like to wear  Guy Fawkes mask [2] during demonstrations. This saves their true identity and are safe for being tracked by  the government. With a smart suit and a mask when hundreds of activists and hacktivists join the protests this looks awesome.  Anonymous was originates(not established) in 2003 on a text and image sharing board 4chan. They act anonymously in a coordinated manner with small self-agreed goal mostly focusing on entertainment.

Joining Anonymous [3]

It is not an organization or a committee you can be a member of, but a culture which you can follow or adapt being openhearted. This is what the Official video of  Anonymous  tells us about. Check the footnotes to know about being Anonymous.

The achievement and hurdles faced by Anonymous are many and the works done by these groups are way beyond a common man's understanding. But they have always been speaking for the cause of Freedom, on which every global citizen should support. Being a hacktivist is very tough move to make. We may not have enough knowledge about hacking but we can atleast follow ways to be secure so that nobody can steal our rights, data and privacy from us.


We are Anonymous, We are Legion, We do not forgive, We do not forget,
Expect us!
References:
[2] Guy Fawkes Mask
[3] How To Join Anonymous


GOOGLE GIVES AWAY 2GB STORAGE ON SAFER INTERNET DAY

Like previous year, Google is giving away 2GB Storage to celebrate Safer Internet Day. Annually Google offers free storage to all of its users. All you need to do is update your security settings. Click here to update your Security Settings.
Google Security Update consists of four security checks:
  • Recovery information
  • Connected dveices
  • Access for less secure apps
  • Account permissions
Updating these checks you will get 2GB of free Drive Storage.The offer has not ended yet. I got 2GB free space on third day.
GRAB YOUR FREE SPACE NOW


Safer Internet Day (SID) is organised by Insafe in February of each year to promote safer and more responsible use of online technology and mobile phones, especially among children and young people across the world. This year SID was celebrated on 7th of
 

FIREFOX Vs CHROMIUM

The unique features of Chromium and Firefox make them stand  right ahead to make a comparison for which one to use. If your device is strong enough to afford space and speed for many application, installing both of the browsers wont be a problem. But I have few reasons for which browser I want to use. I presume most of the peoples' point of view to my logic will be promising.
Chromium is the open-source web browser project from which Google Chrome draws its source code. The browsers share the majority of code and features, though there are some minor differences in features and they have different licensing.
Mozilla Firefox (commonly referred to simply as Firefox) is a free and open source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the  Mozilla Corporation.
So here are some of the comparative analysis which supports respective browsers.
  • Searching: Chromium is more User Interactive then Firefox. Typing any word in the Google search box automatically leads to the URL tab in Chromium, while it don't do in Firefox. So the vote is C:1-1:M
  • URL: In Firefox you need to double click the url in order to select it and type another url in that tab. While clicking one time at the URL tab  in Chromium selects your url, and you can easily modify.So the vote is C:2-1:M
  •  Bookmarks: I say Bookmarks in Chromium is extensively user friendly than Firefox. You can just add the bookmarks in a folder and another folder within that folder. And you can move you bookmarked folder wherever in the bookmark bar. Here again I vote Chromium, so the vote is C:3-1:M
  • Sync: To sync at Firefox you need to signup with any email id you have. IN Chromium you can sighup only with gmail account. And in both of the browsers you can sync history, bookmarks and downloads. So here I vote: C:3-2:M
  • RAM: Approximately Chromium uses 15-25% of your memory compared to Firefox while browsing. So her I prefer C:3-3:M. Some time I find this the only reason to strongly use firefox. 
  • Compatibility: Both browsers are compatible in most of the existing operating systems Windows, OS X, Linux based OS and devices including Android , RaspberyPI etc. Here its a draw. :)
  • Drive Offline Sync: As internet is the mainstream for all of our computation, specially talking about Google Drive offline Sync feature is only available in Chromium browser. So here i vote C:4-3:M
  • Folder Upload: I'm not trying to be biased talking about Google Drive only, but being a freely provided cloud space by Google, millions of people use it. So in Firefox there is not this feature of Folder Upload. Say I always use firefox, but whenever I need to upload my folder I must switch to the Chromium. So here I prefer Chromium and the vote is C:5-3:M.
  • User Profiles: In both of the browsers we can do safe browsing or go incognito. Additionally in Chromium there is a feature of creating users which enables users to use their specific profile, so I vote C:6-3:M 

Image Crdit: OMGUBUNTU
That's it looking at the surface of both of these browsers, I prefer using Chromium. Although I am a Firefox Student Ambassador and do promote the Firefox browser activities from Firefox Friends, because of some slightly affecting features, I need to switch to Chromium. But in case you are using a device with limited processing speed i.e. RAM, whatever the supporting facts for Chromium exists I say you need to switch to chromium.

Lastly I kindly request my readers to comment more differences to compare between these two browsers. Suggested a  point , I will add them with the name of individual who mentioned it, as well the links if necessary.

Troubleshoot Network Manager, Apache, Wireless...

Today's Blog is all about networking stuffs and I will be covering following points:
  1. Know your Network Controller Device with lspci
  2. Display all interfaces which are currently available, even if down with ifconfig
  3. Enable the service networking 
  4. Enable Apache server
  5. Then Enable Network Manager with network-manager
  6. Then  Enable your WiFi with nmcli nm

AND REMEMBER ALL THESE THINGS WILL BE DONE WITH OUR TERMINAL THIS IS WHY LINUX IS SO COOL...


Then we are all set to run the internet.And now we are some basic troubleshooter about networking, though networking is a huge this would be the first step. Not actually first first step in networking is always theory The Basics of Networking, but we are not dealing with it today. So lets begin

1. In order to know  the hardware devices assembled in your laptop open your TERMINAL CTRL+ALT+T and then type lspci .
This displays all the hardware devices  like PCI BRIDGE, SATA controller, SMBus, USB Controller, Audio Device assembled in your laptop / computer. 



My Network controller is:
02:00.0 Network controller: Broadcom Corporation BCM4313 802.11bgn Wireless Network Adapter (rev 01)

2. So now we need to know the interfaces that are available in our UBUNTU.  To see this type ifconfig in the terminal and you will see the output like this :

3. To access the internet first your hardware device should be activated, In order to do so type 
sudo service networking  and press tab twice which displays  arguments like:
 force-reload       reload        restart       start         stop
Perform any you need.

4.  To enable apache server in terminal type:

      sudo service apache2 start

5.  Now enable the network manager. In order to do so in terminal type:
    
     sudo service network-manager start 

6. Now First view the available connecting points Wireless point or Ethernet. To view the available wifi points in terminal type
    
     sudo nmcli con list



This displays the available devices With its UID and SSID.
Now to enable the wifi in terminal type:

      Sudo nmcli con up SSID or the UID

You can manipulate these basic networking commands and  triubleshoot on your own.

Flareget  Video Downloading solution for Chromium Browser

Flareget Video Downloading solution for Chromium Browser

There are many extensions for in Firefox to download videos, but I was stuck so long in Chromuim Web Browser while I needed to download videos. So with my some internet surfing Flareget is my best alternative for video downloading. Let's say it is the alternative software of IDM in Ubuntu in the sense of speed. Flareget provides high speed for video downloading.


Follow the following steps: 
1)  Go to the link and select the download dile for debian package 
http://flareget.com/download 
or
In Terminal type   sudo wget -c"www.flareget.com/files/flareget/debs/amd64/flareget_2.4-27_amd64(stable)_deb.tar.gz
 This downloads  .deb file for installing Flareget. 
2) Double click the downloaded file and you will get forwarded to the Software centre and you will need to install from there. It won't take time to install because it is already downloaded .
ENABLE HOTSPOT IN UBUNTU

ENABLE HOTSPOT IN UBUNTU

I tried a lot to enable hotspot through the GUI of Network Manager but it never happened. It created a hotspot but always the created hotspot didn't even appear in my android phone. Sometimes it is a problem in Ubuntu14.04. Same user interface worked for enabling hotspot in 13.10.Here are the steps that will guide you to enable hotspot and connect with other devices.You need to add a repository online, so make sure that you are using internet 
[email protected]:~$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8 Update the whole list of repositories 
[email protected]:~$sudo apt-get update                                        Adding the repository  adds ap-hotspot to the list, Now install ap-hotspot
[email protected]:~$sudo apt-get install ap-hotspot                         ap-hotspot is now installed. Better open,configure  and start the hotspot service
[email protected]:~$sudo ap-hotspot
[email protected]:~$sudo ap-hotspot configure
[email protected]:~$ sudo ap-hotspot start

After HOTSPOT is created

In case you want to see the devices that are connected to your hotspot use this command
[email protected]:~$ arp -a
I tried it in 14.04, give it a try in other distributions, hope it works. Enjoy the Linux Tips.Keep sharing with us , at the end idea of Linux is all about sharing and learning.